Guo joined the People's Liberation Army (PLA) in February 1969. Afterwards, he finished his language studies in Peking University between August 1970 and April 1974. After graduation, he served as the platoon leader of Liaoning Military Region, translator and chief of staff in a navy troop. From March 1985 to February 1986, Guo studied Japanese in Suzhou University. In February 1988, Guo moved to the Ministry of Public Security, working as department director of the Foreign Affairs Bureau. In February 2002, he was the assistant inspector of the Foreign Affairs Bureau. In September 2004, he became deputy director of the Foreign Affairs Bureau of the ministry. In October 2005, he was appointed as the deputy director of the International Cooperation Bureau of the ministry.