Treaty of the Bogue

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1843: China and U.K. signed Treaty of the Bogue

On October 8, 1843, Qiying, an imperial envoy of China's Qing government, signed the Treaty of the Bogue with British minister Henry Pottinger at Humen, Guangdong, in order to supplement the previous Treaty of Nanking. The Treaty of the Bogue was originally called the supplementary Treaty of Commerce in Five Ports (Guangzhou, Xiamen, Fuzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai) or the Inventory Treaty of Supplementary Affairs. The treaty gave Britain most-favored-nation status and extraterritoriality.

The treaty paved the way for the subjugation of China to Western imperialism. It consolidated the "opening" of China to foreign trade in the wake of the First Opium War and allowed British to reside in parts of China, which had not been opened to foreigners before.