Treaty of Peking

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On November 14, 1860, Qing Dynasty imperial commissioner Yixin and Russian envoy Nikolai Ignatyev signed the Treaty of Peking. The treaty contained 15 articles. Its main contents were as follows:

First, to confirm the Treaty of Aigun (1858); second, the originally jointly-administrated boundary territory covering some 400,000 sq. km, east to the Ussuri River, including Sakhalin Island, was to be transferred to Russia; and third, the original Chinese internal lake Zaysan and Te Muer were to be set as the Sino-Russian western border.

In this way, Russian occupied a bulk of land in the east over Lake Balkhash and also furnished a theoretical basis for the further misappropriation of the eastern and southern part of the lake. By the Second Opium War, the Russians had looted more than 1 million sq. km of Chinese territory.