Republic Protection Campaign
After Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself emperor of a new Empire of China, former Yunnan military governor Cai E and Tang Jiyao launched the Republic Protection Campaign and declared the independence of Yunnan Province in 1915.
In the ensuing civil war, Cai E led his army in an attack in Sichuan Province, while other leaders fought in Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan provinces. Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Shaanxi and Hunan provinces soon announced their succession with wide support from the people. Discord also began to surface inside the government. The accumulating pressure forced Yuan to abdicate in March, and he died a few months later.
The Republic Protection Campaign was proclaimed a success with the provinces rescinding their declarations of independence.