Nuclear disarmament

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Nuclear disarmament  (核裁军) refers to the act of reducing or eliminating the total number of nuclear weapons worldwide by unilateral decision or international agreement, with the end goal of a nuclear-free world.

According to a statement of the Government of the People's Republic of China on 29 July 1996, the major Nuclear-weapon states should abandon their policy of Nuclear deterrence. States with huge nuclear arsenals should continue to drastically reduce their nuclear stockpiles.

All the Nuclear-weapon states should undertake not to be the first to use nuclear weapons at any time and under any circumstance, commit themselves unconditionally not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones, and conclude, at an early date, international legal instruments to such effect.

States with nuclear weapons deployed outside their borders should withdraw all these weapons home. All nuclear-weapon states should pledge their support to the establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones, respect their status as such and undertake corresponding obligations. No countries should develop and deploy space weapon systems or missile defense system undermining strategic security and stability.

An international convention on the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons should be concluded through negotiations with the participation of all states.

Promote Nuclear Disarmament, Work for Compete Prohibition and Thorough Destruction of Nuclear Weapons

To eliminate Nuclear weapons and root out the dangers of nuclear war is the common wish of the people throughout the world. It is also an objective that the Chinese Government and people have been unswervingly striving for. Let us all work together for the ultimate realization of a nuclear-weapon- free world.

On 31 July 1963, the Chinese Government proposed in its statement that all the nuclear-weapon states and non-nuclear-weapon states throughout the world solemnly declare the complete and thorough prohibition and destruction of nuclear weapons with resolute efforts.

China has always taken a responsible and prudent attitude towards nuclear weapon development. Its nuclear arsenal has been kept at a very limited level and its nuclear weapons are solely for self-defense purpose. China has never used nuclear weapons to threaten other countries, nor has it participated in nuclear Arms race or deployed nuclear weapons outside its border.

China firmly opposes nuclear arms race and holds that the nuclear-weapon states with the biggest stockpiles should undertake special responsibility for nuclear disarmament and take lead in reducing their nuclear arsenals and delivery systems, so as to pave way for the other nuclear-weapon states to join the nuclear disarmament process.

China has always maintained that the comprehensive ban of nuclear test constitutes an important step in the process of reaching the goal of complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons. In order to push forward the global nuclear disarmament process, Chinese Government proposed in October 1993 the conclusion of a Comprehensive Nuclear- Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) through negotiations no later than 1996. Thereafter, China actively took part in the negotiations of the treaty. On July 29, 1996, China declared the moratorium of nuclear testing. China was among the first group of countries to sign the CTBT on September 24, 1996, when the Treaty was open for signature. Since then, China has actively supported and participated the preparatory work for the implementation of the treaty.

China supports an early conclusion of a Fissile Material Cut-Off Treaty (FMCT) in accordance with an agreed program of work at the Conference on Disarmament. In 1993, China was in favor of the UN resolution on the conclusion of a multilateral, non-discriminatory, internationally and effectively verifiable FMCT. In April 1997, China, US, Russia, France and Britain issued a joint statement supporting an early conclusion of the FMCT through negotiations on the basis of "Shannon Report" and the mandate contained therein.

In 1994, China proposed at the 49th session of UN General Assembly that an international Convention on the Comprehensive Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons be concluded.

China consistently opposes the development and deployment of outer-space weapon systems and missile defense system that undermines the global strategic balance and stability. On December 1, 1999, China, Russia and Byelorussia cosponsored the Resolution on the Preservation of and Compliance by the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, which was adopted by the 54th session of the UN General Assembly, with a view to preserving the global strategic security and stability, and maintaining the momentum of nuclear disarmament.

China shut down the nuclear weapon development base in Qinghai province, which was formally handed over to the local government in May 1995 after the environment restoration.

Advocate No-First Use of Nuclear Weapons, Devoted to Preventing Nuclear War

To prevent and eliminate the danger of Nuclear war, Chinese Government solemnly announced in 1964 that it would never be the first to use nuclear weapons at any time and under any circumstance. China has thereafter undertaken unconditionally not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones. China is the only nuclear-weapon state that has made and still abided by such a commitment so far.

China actively pushes forward the conclusion of a multilateral treaty on mutual no-first use of nuclear weapons. In January 1994, China formally submitted a draft treaty on the No-First Use of Nuclear Weapons to US, Russia, France and Britain and suggested a consultation between the five nuclear-weapon states at an early date.

China has been actively seeking support of the other nuclear-weapon states to undertake the no-first use commitment on Bilateral basis. On September 4, 1994, in their declaration, Presidents of China and Russia undertook not to be the first to use nuclear weapons against each other or target their nuclear weapons at each other.

China agrees that, as an integral part of the nuclear disarmament process, some confidence-building measures are necessary before comprehensive ban and thorough elimination of nuclear weapons. These measures can be taken into consideration under the framework of a complete prohibition of nuclear weapons convention.

Strengthen the International Non-Proliferation Regime, Devoted to Preventing Nuclear Weapons Proliferation

China has all along firmly opposed to any form of proliferation of nuclear weapons to any country. China pursues a policy of not endorsing, encouraging or engaging in nuclear weapons proliferation and not assisting other countries in developing nuclear weapons. At the same time, China stresses that the prevention of nuclear weapons proliferation should not impede the international cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy.

On March 9, 1992, China acceded to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). In 1995, China joined the consensus on the decision of the indefinite extension of the Treaty.

In 1984, China joined the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In 1985, China declared to put part of its civilian nuclear facilities under IAEA safeguards on a voluntary basis. In 1988, China signed the safeguards agreement with IAEA.

To further strengthen and improve nuclear export control in China, the Chinese Government promulgated Regulations on the Control of Nuclear Export on September 10, 1997, which prohibit the provision of any assistance to the nuclear facilities not subject to the IAEA safeguards, stipulated that nuclear export shall be monopolized by the units designated by the State Council with nuclear export license system. The Regulations on the Control of Nuclear Dual-Use Items and Related Technologies Export promulgated on June 1, 1998 has enforced strict control over nuclear dual-use items and related technologies.

China supports the "93+2" plan aimed at strengthening the effectiveness and improving the efficiency of the IAEA safeguards system, committing itself to contribute to the implementation of this plan on a voluntary basis. On December 31, 1998, China signed the Additional Protocol to the Agreement between China and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in China.

Support the Establishment of Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones, Devoted to the Maintenance of the World Peace

China has always supported the efforts by countries concerned to establish Nuclear-weapon-free zones (NWFZs) through consultation on voluntary basis and is of the view that it is an effective way to prevent nuclear proliferation by establishing nuclear-weapon-free zones.

China objects to the deployment of nuclear weapons outside its border and is of the view that the nuclear-weapon states that have deployed nuclear weapons on foreign soil should withdraw such weapons to their own countries.

China respectively signed the protocol II to the Treaty of Tlatelolco in 1973 and related protocols to the Treaty of Rarotonga in 1987. On 1 April 1996, China signed the Protocol I and II to the Pelindaba Treaty and ratified them on 3 July 1997. China also supports the position of the establishment of the NWFZs in South Asia, Middle East and on Korean Peninsular. China has reached agreement with the ASEAN countries on the Protocol to the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone and undertook to sign the protocol at an early date as soon as the differences between the other nuclear-weapon states and ASEAN countries are solved. China respects Mongolia's efforts to obtain Nuclear-Weapon-Free status and has unconditionally pledged security assurances to Mongolia. China supports the UN Resolution on Nuclear- Weapon-Free Southern Hemisphere and Adjacent Areas presented by the non-nuclear-weapon states. China is playing a positive role in maintaining the regional security in its efforts to support the establishment of NWFZs.