Mausoleum of First Emperor of Qin Dynasty
The Mausoleum of First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty (221-206BC) is located about 5 km to the east of Lintong county seat. According to the record of Shi ji (Records of the Historian), soon after Ying Zheng ascent the throne to be the king of the Qin State in 246 BC, he began to build his mausoleum in Lishan Mountain. In 221 BC, the Qin defeated its six rival states and unified China. Then, the new Qin emperor drove over 70,000 war captives and slaves from all places to continue the construction, which took another 36 years to complete. In 209 BC, the First Emperor of Qin Dynasty died, his successor ordered all his concubines without babies to be buried with him in the mausoleum. Also buried with him were numerous life-size terra-cotta warriors and horses.
In the spring of 1974, three pits of terra-cotta warriors and horses were found successively. From the east to the west, the No.1 Pit is 230 m in length, 62 m in width, 5 m in depth. It consists of a corridor and 11 passage holes. The excavated area of 96 sq. m revealed over 500 terra-cotta warriors, four chariots and 24 horses. It was estimated that over 6,000 terra-cotta warriors and horses were buried in the pit. The No.2 Pit, covering 6,000 sq. m, includes cavalries, chariots, infantries and archers. There are in this pit over 1,000 terra-cotta warriors and horses, in addition to all kinds of arms. The No.3 Pit is over 500 sq. m in a concave plane, and there is a chariot inside it and 68 terra-cotta guards. It seems to be a commanding post.
The terra-cotta warriors and horses of the Qin Dynasty were all molded on real people and horses. They are about 1.8 m tall, with different appearances and facial expressions. From their fineries, armors and positions, it is possible to distinguish their ranks, such as generals, archers and soldiers. Most of arms unearthed were bronze ones treated by chrome, shining and sharp-edged. Moreover, there are two groups of bronze horse-drawn carriages, each with four horses and an archer.
The terra-cotta warriors and horses in the Mausoleum of First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty are considered the Eighth Wonder of the World. In 1976, the Museum of the Terra-Cotta Warriors and Horses in the Mausoleum of the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty was built at the site of the No.1 Pit.