Local People's Congresses and Governments

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Reflecting existing national administrative divisions, there are people’s congresses and people’s governments at all levels – in provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government; in counties and cities; in townships and towns. The people’s congresses at and above the county level have their standing committees.


Local People’s Congresses

The local people’s congresses are the local organs of state power. They have the power to decide on important affairs in their respective administrative areas. The people’s congresses of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government have the power to formulate local regulations.

Deputies to the people’s congresses of provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government, autonomous prefectures, and those cities that are divided into districts are elected by the people’s congresses at the next lower level; deputies to the people’s congresses of counties, autonomous counties, cities not divided into districts, municipal districts, townships, nationality townships and towns are elected directly by their constituencies.

The tenure of office of the people’s congresses of provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government, autonomous prefectures, and cities divided into districts is five years, of the people’s congresses of counties, autonomous counties, cities not divided into districts, municipal districts, townships, nationality townships and towns, three years.

The functions and powers of local people’s congresses at all levels include ensuring the observance and implementation of the Constitution, and statutes and administrative rules and regulations in their respective administrative areas. Within the limits of their authority as prescribed by law, they adopt and issue resolutions and examine and decide on plans for local economic and cultural development and for the development of public services. At their respective levels, local people’s congresses elect and have the power to recall governors and deputy governors of provinces, or chairpersons and vice-chairpersons of national autonomous regions, or mayors and deputy mayors, or heads and deputy heads of prefectures, counties, districts, townships and towns. People’s congresses at the county level or above examine and approve the plans for economic and social development, budgets for their areas and implementation reports. They have the power to alter or annul inappropriate decisions of their own standing committees. They elect and have the power to recall presidents of people’s courts and procurators-general of people’s procuratorates at the corresponding levels.

Standing committees of local people’s congresses at the county level or above are the permanent organs of people’s congresses at the corresponding levels. Composed of a chairperson, vice-chairpersons and members, they are responsible and report on their work to the people’s congresses at the corresponding levels.

The functions and powers of the standing committees of the local people’s congresses at the county level or above include discussing and deciding on major local issues in all fields of work in their administrative areas; supervising the work of people’s governments, people’s courts and people’s procuratorates at corresponding levels; altering or annulling inappropriate decisions and orders of people’s governments at corresponding levels; altering or annulling inappropriate decisions of people’s congresses at the next lower level; and within the limits of their authority as prescribed by law, appointing or removing functionaries of the local people’s governments, and deciding on the partial removal or election of deputies to people’s congresses at the next higher level.


Local People’s Governments

Local people’s governments are the local administrative organs. Working under the unified leadership of the State Council, they are responsible to and report on their work to the people’s congresses and their standing committees at the corresponding level and to the organs of state administration at the next higher level. When local people’s congresses are not in session, local people’s governments at the county level or above are responsible to, and report on their work to, their standing committees at the corresponding levels.

At their respective levels, local people’s governments of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government are composed of a governor and deputy governors, a chairperson and vice-chairpersons, a mayor, vice-mayors, a secretary-general and directors of departments, bureaus and commissions while those of autonomous prefectures, counties, autonomous counties, cities and districts directly under the municipal governments are formed of a head and deputy heads or a mayor and vice-mayors, and heads of bureaus and sections. Each township, nationality township and town government is led by a head and deputy heads.

Within the limits of their authority as prescribed by law, local people’s governments at the county level or above conduct administrative work concerning the economy, education, science, culture, public health, physical culture, rural and urban development, finance, civil affairs, public security, nationality affairs, judicial administration, supervision and family planning, promulgate resolutions and orders, appoint and remove, train, check on and reward or punish functionaries.

Local people’s governments of townships, nationality townships and towns implement the resolutions and decisions of people’s congresses at the corresponding levels and decisions and orders at the higher levels, and direct administrative work in their respective administrative areas.