Located in the southwest of the Jiayuguan City, the pass was first built in 1372 during the Hongwu reign period of Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). Jiayu Pass is not only the western end of the Great Wall, but also the vital passage of the famous Silk Road.
A thick wall, 11.7 m high and 733.3 m long, was built on the west side of the pass. On the north and south sides are low cob walls. There are two gates: Guanghua Gate in the east and Rouyuan Gate in the west. Both gates have gate towers that are 17 m high, with three-tiered gable-and-hip roofs and surrounded by enclosing porches. In the northern side inside the walls is a wide slope horse way, directly leading to the top of the wall. Outside the east and west gates are small enceintes which open up southwards and separated from the main gates.