Duan Qirui (1865-1936), native of Hefei, Anhui, styled Zhiquan. In 1889 (15th year of Guangxu reign), graduated from the Beiyang Military Academy, then went to study military affairs in Germany. In 1896 assisted Yuan Shikai to establish the Beiyang Army, served as administrator of Baoding Military Officers School, commander of the 6th garrison area, military commander of Jiangbei, together with Wang Shizhen and Feng Guozhang were called “Three Beiyang Military Talents.” In 1911 (3rd year of Xuantong reign), led troops to suppress the Wuchang Uprising, and was appointed Huguang governor-general. After the inauguration of the Republic, served as minister of the land forces, chief of staff and premier of the Beiyang Government. After Yuan Shikai’s death, under the support of the Japanese imperialists, controlled the Beiyang Government, and became leader of the Wan-faction warlords. During the World War I, sold out national sovereignty and, made great amount of loans from Japan under the name of joining the War to organize troops in order to strengthen the force of the Wan-faction. During the Zhi-Wan War of 1920, was wiped out by the Zhi-faction led by Cao Kun and Wu Peifu. In 1924, in the second Zhi-Feng War, was made Provisional Executive of the Republic of China by the Feng-faction and Feng Yuxiang. In 1926, issued order to massacre the patriotic masses of Beijing, brought about the March 18th Massacre. Soon was expelled by Feng Yuxiang. In 1933, was taken by Chiang Kai-shek to live in Shanghai and then died of illness on Mt Lushan.