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The China United League (Tongmenghui, 同盟会), which was also known as the United Allegiance Society, was a secret anti-Qing Dynasty society established on Aug. 20, 1905, by Sun Yat-sen in Tokyo.

The group evolved from the Revive China Society (Hsing Chung Hui), which had begun meeting 11 years earlier. Sun modified the group’s slogan to “Expel the Tartar barbarians, revive China, establish a republic and equalize land ownership.” Despite its military revolts, the society expanded its influence through a series of publications, including “Minpao,” that argued against pro-Qing reformists who wanted to maintain the centralized power of the Manchurian royal family. The restructured secret society drew a number of prestigious revolutionaries, including Huang Xing and Song Jiaoren.

After the Qing Dynasty fell, Song restructured the society again into the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) on Aug. 7, 1912. Song, a promising political leader, was murdered after leading the Nationalists to victory in China’s first democratic elections.

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